New media marketing is a relatively new concept used by businesses in developing an online community, which allows satisfied customers to congregate and extol the virtues of a particular brand. In most cases, the online community includes mechanisms such as blogs, podcasts, message boards, product reviews and Wikipedia, all of which contribute to a transparent forum to post praises, criticisms, questions, and suggestions.
One of the primary arguments to promote new media marketing is the premise that traditional advertising is losing its influence on consumers. Backed by statistical evidence demonstrating a growing trend of consumers making purchasing decisions based on Internet research and referrals. These advocates strongly adhere to the notion that consumers are more inclined to believe feedback from like-minded peers than corporate marketing verbiage dispersed through traditional television, radio, direct mail, or newspaper advertising.
Although businesses would be exposing certain weaknesses to the marketplace by allowing individuals, or even competitors, to post critical comments, responding with an honest and transparent answer designed around solving the issue at hand may mitigate potential risks.
New media marketing is most effectively marketed by internet-driven technology such as blogs, RSS, web video productions, podcasts and social networking platforms.
Although there are several ways that New Media may be described, Lev Manovich, in an introduction to The New Media Reader, defines New Media by using eight simple and concise propositions:
New Media versus Cyberculture – Cyberculture is the various social phenomena that are associated with the Internet and network communications (blogs, online multi-player gaming), whereas New Media is concerned more with cultural objects and paradigms (digital to analog television, iPhones).
New Media as Computer Technology Used as a Distribution Platform – New Media are the cultural objects which use digital computer technology for distribution and exhibition. e.g. (at least for now) Internet, Web sites, computer multimedia, Blu-ray disks etc. The problem with this is that the definition must be revised every few years. The term “new media” will not be “new” anymore, as most forms of culture will be distributed through computers.
New Media as Digital Data Controlled by Software – The language of New Media is based on the assumption that, in fact, all cultural objects that rely on digital representation and computer-based delivery do share a number of common qualities. New media is reduced to digital data that can be manipulated by software as any other data. Now media operations can create several versions of the same object. An example is an image stored as matrix data which can be manipulated and altered according to the additional algorithms implemented, such as color inversion, gray-scaling, sharpening, rasterizing, etc.
New Media as the Mix Between Existing Cultural Conventions and the Conventions of Software – “New Media today can be understood as the mix between older cultural conventions for data representation, access, and manipulation and newer conventions of data representation, access, and manipulation. The “old” data are representations of visual reality and human experience, and the “new” data is numerical data. The computer is kept out of the key “creative” decisions, and is delegated to the position of a technician.” e.g. In film, software is used in some areas of production, in others are created using computer animation.
New Media as the Aesthetics that Accompanies the Early Stage of Every New Modern Media and Communication Technology – “While ideological tropes indeed seem to be reappearing rather regularly, many aesthetic strategies may reappear two or three times … In order for this approach to be truly useful it would be insufficient to simply name the strategies and tropes and to record the moments of their appearance; instead, we would have to develop a much more comprehensive analysis which would correlate the history of technology with social, political, and economical histories or the modern period.”
New Media as Faster Execution of Algorithms Previously Executed Manually or through Other Technologies – Computers are a huge speed-up of what were previously manual techniques. e.g. calculators. “Dramatically speeding up the execution makes possible previously non-existent representational technique.” This also makes possible of many new forms of media art such as interactive multimedia and video games. “On one level, a modern digital computer is just a faster calculator, we should not ignore its other identity: that of a cybernetic control device.”
New Media as the Encoding of Modernist Avant-Garde; New Media as Metamedia – Manovich declares that the 1920s are more relevant to New Media than any other time period. Meta – media coincides with postmodernism in that they both rework old work rather than create new work. New media avant-garde “is about new ways of accessing and manipulating information” (e.g. hypermedia, databases, search engines, etc.). Meta-media is an example of how quantity can change into quality as in new media technology and manipulation techniques can “recode modernist aesthetics into a very different postmodern aesthetics.”
New Media as Parallel Articulation of Similar Ideas in Post-WWII Art and Modern Computing – Post WWII Art or “combinatorics” involves creating images by systematically changing a single parameter. This leads to the creation or remarkably similar images and spatial structures. “This illustrates that algorithms, this essential part of new media, do not depend on technology, but can be executed by humans.”
Industry of New Media and Business Model
The new media industry shares an open association with many market segments in areas such as software or video game design, television, radio and particularly movies, advertising and marketing, through which industry seeks to gain from the advantages of two-way dialogue with consumers primarily through the internet. The advertising industry has capitalized on the proliferation of new media with large agencies running multimillion dollar interactive advertising subsidiaries. Interactive websites and kiosks have become popular. In a number of cases advertising agencies have also set up new divisions to study new media. Public relations firms are also taking advantage of the opportunities in new media through interactive PR practices. Interactive PR practices include the use of social media to reach a mass audience of online social network users.
Social Network ( advertising, VIP service, online purchasing)
Such kind of companies like Facebook, WordPress, Twitter, Youtube, google+ etc, these firms, they build different types of network by different concepts. Furthermore, such business are all provide advanced technology and idea, they can connect all people from the corner to the center, and spread information all over the world.
Like Amazon.com, digital media companies, google search engine, other online shops, they hold a huge size customer group. Such type of companies controlled the registration information and knew customer’s consumer habits, they can improve their relationship with their customer and make more progressive by customer database analysis.
With the use of cloud computing technology, online platform service become particularly important and valuable
Other Relative Industries ( devices, service support, communication service supplier)
Innovation and Software
Difference and Interactivity between Traditional Media and New Media
Interactivity has become a term for a number of new media use options evolving from the rapid dissemination of Internet access points, the digitalization of media, and media convergence. In 1984, Rice defined new media as communication technologies that enable or facilitate user-to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information. Such a definition replaces the “one-to-many” model of traditional mass communication with the possibility of a “many-to many” web of communication. Any individual with the appropriate technology can now produce his or her online media and include images, text, and sound about whatever he or she chooses.Thus the convergence of new methods of communication with new technologies shifts the model of mass communication, and radically reshapes the ways we interact and communicate with one another. in “What is new media?” Vin Crosbie (2002) described three different kinds of communication media. He saw Interpersonal media as “one to one”, Mass media as “one to many”, and finally New Media as Individuation Media or “many to many”.
When we think of interactivity and its meaning, we assume that it is only prominent in the conversational dynamics of individuals who are face-to-face. This restriction of opinion does not allow us to see its existence in mediated communication forums. Interactivity is present in some programming work, such as video games. It’s also viable in the operation of traditional media. In the mid 1990s, filmmakers started using inexpensive digital cameras to create films. It was also the time when moving image technology had developed, which was able to be viewed on computer desktops in full motion. This development of new media technology was a new method for artists to share their work and interact with the big world. Other settings of interactivity include radio and television talk shows, letters to the editor, listener participation in such programs, and computer and technological programming. Interactive new media has become a true benefit to every one because people can express their artwork in more than one way with the technology that we have today and there is no longer a limit to what we can do with our creativity.
Interactivity can be considered a central concept in understanding new media, but different media forms possess different degrees of interactivity, and some forms of digitized and converged media are not in fact interactive at all. Tony Feldman considers digital satellite television as an example of a new media technology that uses digital compression to dramatically increase the number of television channels that can be delivered, and which changes the nature of what can be offered through the service, but does not transform the experience of television from the user’s point of view, and thus lacks a more fully interactive dimension. It remains the case that interactivity is not an inherent characteristic of all new media technologies, unlike digitization and convergence.
Terry Flew (2005) argues that “the global interactive games industry is large and growing, and is at the forefront of many of the most significant innovations in new media” (Flew 2005: 101). Interactivity is prominent in these online video games such as World of Warcraft, The Sims Online and Second Life. These games, which are developments of “new media,” allow for users to establish relationships and experience a sense of belonging that transcends traditional temporal and spatial boundaries (such as when gamers logging in from different parts of the world interact). These games can be used as an escape or to act out a desired life. Will Wright, creator of The Sims, “is fascinated by the way gamers have become so attached to his invention-with some even living their lives through it”.New media have created virtual realities that are becoming virtual extensions of the world we live in. With the creation of Second Life and Active Worlds before it, people have even more control over this virtual world, a world where anything that a participant can think of can become a reality.
New Media changes continuously because it is constantly modified and redefined by the interaction between users, emerging technologies, cultural changes, etc.